System Development phase

The system-development life cycle enables users to transform a newly-developed project into an operational one.

The System Development Phase is a multi step, iterative process, structured in a methodical way. This process is used to model or provide a framework for technical and non-technical activities to deliver a quality system which meets or exceeds a business's expectations or manages decision-making progression.

7 Phase of System DevelopmentFig: 7 phase of system development 

1. System Study (Planning)

  • This is the first step of the system development phase. In this phase the top manager of an organization makes the basic decision to use a computer based system for managing the organization.
  • The first job of the system analyst was to decide the existing system that could be manual or computer based.
  • It identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a business's strategic objectives.
  • The analyst defines levels in the organization hierarchy, namely, top managers to receptionists. Based on the Analyst identifies what priority assigns. 
  • The purpose of this step is to find out the scope of the problem and determine solutions. Resources, costs, time, benefits and other items should be considered at this stage. 

System Analysis : Feasibility Study 

  • The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change.
  • System analysis is the dissection of a system into its component pieces to study how those component pieces interact and work.
  • This is the early phase of system development. System analysis is defined as those phases and activities that focus on the business problem, independent of technology.
  • In the event of a problem, possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project
  • Systems analysis is vital in determining what a business's needs are, as well as how they can be met, who will be responsible for individual pieces of the project, and what sort of timeline should be expected.

In Short form of above points :

  • The survey and planning of the system

  • The study and analysis of the existing business 

  • Define the business requirement  

Feasibility Study 

It analyses the proposed system from different aspects so that it makes us clear how practical or beneficial the system will be to the organization. 

Feasibility study is the study if whether the system is feasible of not to design 

  1. Economical Feasibility

  2. Technical Feasibility

  3. Operational Feasibility

  4. Behaviour Feasibility

  5. Schedule feasibility Feasibility

  6. Legal feasibility Feasibility

3.System Design 

  • The third phase describes, in detail, the necessary specifications, features, and operations that will satisfy the functional requirements of the proposed system which will be in place.
  • This is the step for end users to discuss and determine their specific business information needs for the proposed system.
  • It"s during this phase that they will consider the essential components (hardware and/or software) structure (networking capabilities), processing and procedures for the system to accomplish its objectives.

Type of system design methodology 

  1. Top down methodology 

  • Problem and complexity pieces and then dividing them into successively smaller pieces.
  • Write the major function, requirement programmer, programming team, design team etc.  
  1. Bottom up methodology 

  • This is the individual base elements of the system are first specified in detail.
  • The element is linked together to form a larger subsystem. (OOP ) use for programming.

4.System Development :

  • The fourth phase is when the real work begins—in particular, when a programmer, network engineer and/or database developer are brought on to do the major work on the project.

  • This work includes using a flowchart to ensure that the process of the system is properly organized.
  • The development phase marks the end of the initial section of the process.
  • Determine programming language : like C++, java, visual programming . C#, .NET, php etc.
  • Convert logical structure into programs in a programming language
  • DB created
  • User operational documents are written
  • User are trained
  • The internal documentation of a system is prepared.

5. System Testing : 

  • The fifth phase involves systems integration and system testing (of programs and procedures)—normally carried out by a Quality Assurance (QA) professional—to determine if the proposed design meets the initial set of business goals.

  • Testing may be repeated, specifically to check for errors, bugs, and interoperability. This testing will be performed until the end user finds it acceptable.

  • Another part of this phase is verification and validation, both of which will help ensure the program’s successful completion


  • This is the sixth phase of the software development system.

  • This phase involves the actual installation of the newly-developed system.

  • This step puts the project into production by moving the data and components from the old system and placing them in the new system via a direct cutover.

  •  The implementation operation is divided in three major categories 

  1. Direct conversion 

  • Direct conversion can be a risky (and complicated) move, the Direct conversion typically happens during off-peak hours, thus minimizing the risk. Both system analysts and end-users should now see the realization of the project that has implemented changes.
  1. Parallel conversion

  • In parallel conversion, the new system and old system operated parallel. 
  • Developers get a chance to test a new system in action while working and without damaging the old system.
  • If a new system works without conflict then the developer will install a new system in business.  
  1. Phase conversion

  • It is the partial conversion system. This is merely the good idea because we can get a chance to find the error and solve it.    
  1. Pilot conversion 

  • New system is installed for some users who evaluate it and helps decide whether it is suitable for the rest of the system to implement or not. 
  • It ensures functionality at a level that can perform in real operation. 

7.Maintenance and review 

  • After the system implement maintenance and modification begin.
  • Maintenance can be hardware and software. 
  • If the new system is contradicted with the design specification the change has to be made. 

Type of maintenance :

  • Corrective maintenance: run time maintenance 

  •  Adaptive maintenance : modification and adds new features

  • Perfective maintenance : improve the life system.

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